NO. 42 SAN BERNARDINO ASISTENCIA
This branch of San Gabriel Mission was constructed around 1830 on the San Bernardino Rancho. During the 1840s the buildings were used by José del Carmen Lugo as part of his rancho grant. After its sale to the Mormons, it was occupied by Bishop Tenney in the 1850s, and later by Dr. Benjamin Barton in the 1860s. Its restoration was completed in 1937 by the Works Progress Administration, assisted by the San Bernardino County Historical Society. Location: 26930 Barton Rd, E of Nevada St, Redlands
NO. 43 THE ZANJA
Spanish missionaries introduced the principle of irrigation in San Bernardino Valley, thus opening the way to settlement. Franciscan fathers engineered, and Indians dug, this first ditch, or ‘zanja,’ in 1819-1820. The Zanja helped support the San Bernardino Asistencia, the Rancho San Bernardino, then pioneer ranches and orchards and finally Redlands’ domestic water supply. Location: Sylvan Park, University St, Redlands
NO. 44 SITE OF MORMON STOCKADE
In 1839, the first house in San Bernardino was built. The home belonged to José del Carmen Lugo, one of the grantees of the San Bernardino Rancho. In 1851 a stockade of logs was built here as a protection against the Indians, in which more than a hundred families lived for over a year. Location: San Bernardino County Courthouse, Arrowhead Ave and Court St, San Bernardino
NO. 95 GUACHAMA RANCHERIA
Guachama Rancheria, renamed San Bernardino on May 20, 1810, by Francisco Dumetz, thus becoming the San Bernardino Rancho of the Mission San Gabriel in 1819. The adobe administration building stood 70 yards north of this location, an enramada served as the chapel, and a zanja was constructed to bring water from the mountains for irrigation. Control by mission fathers ended in 1834.
Location: 25894 Mission Rd, SW of high powerline towers on N side of st, Redlands
NO. 96 MORMON ROAD
When the Mormons came to the San Bernardino Valley in 1851 they needed suitable lumber to construct their homes and stockade. To bring in lumber from the mountains they built an 11-mile wagon road that required about a thousand days’ of labor to complete.
Location: Waterman Canyon, State Hwy 18 (P.M. 17.15), 0.5 mi W of Crestline
NO. 121 AGUA MANSA
Don Juan Bandini, the owner of the Jurupa Rancho, donated parts of his rancho to a group of New Mexican colonists in 1845 on the understanding they would aid in repelling Indian raids on his stock. The community was named Agua Mansa-Gentle Water-and was prosperous until 1862, when a great flood suddenly swept down the Santa Ana, carrying away the village of adobe buildings and covering the fields with sand and gravel. The village was rebuilt on higher ground but never regained its former prosperity. Location: 270 E Agua Mansa Rd, Colton
NO. 191 YORBA-SLAUGHTER ADOBE
An early example of California architecture, The Yorba-Slaughterhouse is one of the oldest adobe residences in San Bernardino County. Built in 1852-1853 by Raimundo Yorba. In 1868 the property was purchased by Fenton Mercer Slaughter, it was preserved as a memorial to him by his daughter, Julia Slaughter Fuqua. Location: 17127 Pomona-Rincon Rd, 5.5 mi S of Chino
NO. 360 TAPIA ADOBE (SITE OF)
In 1839 Governor Juan Alvarado granted the 13,000-acre tract called Cucamonga to Tiburcio Tapia, an ex-soldier who was a prominent merchant and alcalde in Los Angeles. A half-mile west of this marker Tapia, employing Indian laborers, immediately built an adobe house on a vantage point on Red Hill. The large adobe was abandoned in 1858 when Tapia’s heirs sold the rancho. The adobe soon disintegrated into its native earth. This marker is located on land which once was a part of Tapia’s rancho. Location: 8916 Foothill Blvd, Cucamonga
NO. 490 CUCAMONGA RANCHO WINERY
Established by Tiburcio Tapia, to whom the Cucamonga Rancho was granted March 3, 1839, by Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado of Mexico. Location: 8916 Foothill Blvd, Cucamonga
NO. 528 YUCAIPA ADOBE
Constructed in 1842 by Diego Sepúlveda, nephew of Antonio María Lugo, this is believed to be the oldest house in San Bernardino County. The land, formerly controlled by San Gabriel Mission, was part of the Rancho San Bernardino granted to the Lugos in 1842. The adobe’s later owners included John Brown, Sr., James W. Waters, and the Dunlap family, it was acquired by San Bernardino County in 1955.
Location: 32183 Kentucky St, Yucaipa
NO. 573 SYCAMORE GROVE
Sycamore Valley ranch, formerly called Sycamore Grove, was the first camp of the Mormon pioneers. Captain Jefferson Hunt, Amasa Lyman, Charles C. Rich, David Seely, and Andrew Lytle stopped here in June 1851. Location: Glen Helen Regional Park, 2555 Devore Rd, 0.7 mi W of Devore
NO. 576 SANTA FE AND SALT LAKE TRAIL MONUMENT
Erected in 1917 in honor of the brave pioneers of California who traveled the Santa Fe and Salt Lake Trail in 1849 by Sheldon Stoddard, Sydney P. Waite, John Brown, Jr., George Miller, George M. Cooley, Silas C. Cox, Richard Weir, and Jasper N. Corbett. Location: S end Wagon Train Rd, SE corner I-15 (P.M. 21.4) and State Hwy 138, 17 mi N of San Bernardino
NO. 577 MORMON TRAIL MONUMENT
In June 1851, 500 Mormon pioneers came through this pass to enter the San Bernardino Valley, where they established a prosperous community. Location: W Cajon Canyon, State Hwy 138 (P.M. 10. 7), 3.6 mi W of I-15, 20 mi N of San Bernardino
NO. 578 STODDARD-WAITE MONUMENT
This monument marks the western extension of the Santa Fe Trail traveled by Sheldon Stoddard and Sydney P. Waite in 1849. Location: Elsie Arey May Nature Center NW corner of I-15 (P.M. 20.0) and Cleghorn Rd, 16 mi N of San Bernardino
NO. 579 DALEY TOLL ROAD MONUMENT
The Daley Road, built by Edward Daley and Co. in 1870, was one of the first roads into the San Bernardino Mountains that could accommodate wagons. It was a toll road until 1890 when it became a county road. Now, it is a Forest Service fire road, it is not open to the public. Location: On State Hwy 18 (P.M. 23.3), at Daley Canyon Rd, 0.6 mi E of Rim Forest
NO. 617 FORT BENSON
This is the site of an adobe fortification erected about 1856-1857 by the ‘Independent’ faction in a dispute with the Mormons over land title. The fort was maintained for about a year. This also is the site of the Indian village of Jumuba, and Jedediah Smith camped here in January 1827. Location: 10600 Hunts Lane, Colton
NO. 618 GARCÉS-SMITH MONUMENT
This monument marks an old Indian trail, the Mojave Trail, used by Father Garcés in March 1776 on his trip from Needles to San Gabriel. The same trail was used by Jedediah Smith in 1826 on his first trip through San Bernardino Valley.
Location: Call San Bernardino National Forest, Cajon Ranger District, 714/887-2576 for permission to view plaque and directions
NO. 619 HOLCOMB VALLEY
Southern California’s largest gold rush followed the discovery of rich placer deposits by William F. Holcomb and Ben Choteau on May 4, 1860. Miners rushed to the valley and established boom towns. Belleville, the largest, rivaled San Bernardino in population and almost became the county seat. Violence and hangings were common in this remote valley. Over time, major placer and quartz mining declined although some activity continues today. Belleville Holcomb Valley, on Rd No. 3N16, 4.3 mi NW of Big Bear City.
Location: Plaque at Big Bear Valley Historical Society Museum in Big Bear City Park on Green Way Dr
NO. 620 YUCAIPA RANCHERIA
Yucaipa Valley supported a large population of Serrano Indians. The fertile valley was watered by springs and creeks. The Indians called this area ‘Yucaipat’ which meant ‘wetlands.’ These Native Americans lived at this village site most of the year, with occasional excursions to the mountains to gather acorns and other food items during the harvesting season. Location: 32183 Kentucky St, Yucaipa
NO. 622 HARRY WADE EXIT ROUTE
After traveling to Death Valley with the ill-fated 1849 caravan, Harry Wade found this exit route for his ox-drawn wagon and thereby saved his life and the lives of his wife and children. The Wade party came upon the known Spanish Trail to Cajón Pass.
Location: 4 mi S of Death Valley National Monument on State Hwy 127 (P.M. 29.8), 30 mi N of Baker
NO. 725 OLD BEAR VALLEY DAM
In 1884 Frank Brown built an unusual dam here to supply irrigation water for the Redlands area. The single-arch granite dam formed Big Bear Lake, then the world’s largest man-made lake. Engineers claimed the dam would not hold, and declared it “The Eighth Wonder of the World” when it did. The old dam is usually underwater because of the 20-foot higher dam built 200 feet west in 1912.
Location: W edge of Big Bear Lake, the intersection of State Hwys 18 and 38, 4.8 mi W of Big Bear Lake Village
NO. 717 THE ANGELES NATIONAL FOREST
The first national forest in the State of California and second in the United States, Angeles National Forest was created by proclamation of President Benjamin Harrison on December 20, 1892. The first name was given to the forest, “San Gabriel Timberland Reserve,” was changed to “San Gabriel National Forest March 4, 1907, and then to “Angeles National Forest” on July 1, 1908.
Location: San Gabriel Mtns, Clear Creek vista point, State Hwy 2 (P.M. 32.8), 8.3 mi N of I-210, La Canada
NO. 737 CHIMNEY ROCK
Conflicts between Indians and white settlers over the rich lands of the San Bernardino Mountains culminated in the battle at Chimney Rock on February 16, 1867. Although the Indians defended themselves fiercely, they were forced to retreat into the desert. In the years following, the Indians’ traditional mountain food gathering areas were lost to white encroachment.
Location: On State Hwy 18 (P.M. 76.9) at Rabbit Springs Rd, 3.2 mi W of Lucerne Valley
NO. 774 SEARLES LAKE BORAX DISCOVERY
John Searles discovered borax on the nearby surface of Searles Lake in 1862. With his brother Dennis, he formed the San Bernardino Borax Mining Company in 1873 and operated it until 1897. The chemicals in Searles Lake-borax, potash, soda ash, salt cake, and lithium-were deposited here by the runoff waters from melting ice-age glaciers, John Searles’ discovery has proved to be the world’s richest chemical storehouse, containing half the natural elements known to man. Location: Roadside rest area, Trona Rd at Center St, Trona
NO. 781 NATIONAL OLD TRAILS MONUMENT
An old Indian trail, still visible in some places, ran roughly parallel to the Colorado River on the California side. This is the route followed by Garcés and his Mojave guides in 1776 and by Jedediah Smith in 1826.
Location: On the shoulder of NW corner of Colorado River Bridge, North K St, Needles
NO. 782 TOWN OF CALICO
The Calico Mining District, which had a peak population of 3,000, produced between $13 and $20 million in silver and $9 million in borate minerals between 1881 and 1907. On April 6, 1881, several claims were located that formed the Silver King, largest mine in the district. Profitable mining of silver in the area ceased in 1896. Location: 4 mi NW of I-15 on Ghost Town Rd, Yermo
NO. 859 VON SCHMIDT STATE BOUNDARY MONUMENT
This boundary monument, a cast iron column erected in 1873, marks the southern terminus of the California-Nevada State boundary established by A. W. Von Schmidt’s 1872-1873 survey. Von Schmidt’s line, the first officially recognized oblique state line between California and Nevada, erred slightly, the boundary was later corrected to the present line, 3/4 mile to the north.
Location: On E side of Pew Rd (River Rd), 2.6 mi S of the state line, 14 mi N of Needles
NO. 892 HARVEY HOUSE
In 1893 Fred Harvey, founder and operator of the Santa Fe Harvey Houses, took over the operation of all hotel and restaurants on the Santa Fe line, including the one at Barstow (then Waterman Junction) constructed in 1885. In 1908 this Harvey House burned, and in 1910-1913 the present Spanish-Moorish structure designed by architect Mary E. J. Coulter was constructed. It is the best surviving example of California’s depot-hotels of the turn of the century. Location: Santa Fe Depot, SW corner of First Ave and Riverside Dr, plaque located at Mojave River Museum, 270 E Virginia Way, Barstow
NO. 939 Twentieth Century Folk Art Environments – HULA VILLE
Miles Mahan began building Hula Ville in 1955 after retiring as a ‘carny,’ or carnival worker. Over the years, he put his statues and poems together in the desert, on Interstate 15 near Hesperia. Demolished 9/97
Location: On Amargosa Rd, 2.0 mi W of I-15 and Phelan Rd, 6 mi NW of Hesperia
NO. 939 Twentieth Century Folk Art Environments -POSSUM TROT
Calvin and Ruby Black began building Possum Trot in 1954 as an attraction for their rock shop as well as an artistic expression. Calvin carved the dolls, each representing someone important in his life, and Ruby made clothes for them. The animated displays were designed to entertain visitors. Location: Ghost Town Rd, 1.5 mi N of I-15, 4 mi NW of Yermo
NO. 942 SITE OF THE RANCHO CHINO ADOBE OF ISAAC WILLIAMS
Near this site, Isaac Williams in 1841 built a large adobe home, located on the 22,000-acre Rancho Chino which he acquired from his father-in-law Antonio Lugo. The ‘Battle of Chino’ occurred at the Adobe on September 26-27, 1846, during which 24 Americans were captured by a group of about 50 Californios. Located on the Southern Immigrant Trail to California, the adobe later became an inn and stage stop famous for its hospitality. Location: Chino Fire Station No. 2, 4440 Eucalyptus Ave, one block W of State Hwy 71 and Pipeline Ave, 3 mi SW of Chino
NO. 963 THE MOJAVE ROAD
Long ago, Mohave Indians used a network of pathways to cross the Mojave Desert. In 1826, American trapper Jedediah Smith used their paths and became the first non-Indian to reach the California coast overland from mid-America. The paths were worked into a military wagon road in 1859. This ‘Mojave Road’ remained a major link between Los Angeles and points east until a railway crossed the desert in 1885.Location: Midway Rest Area, N-bound I-15, 30 mi NE of Barstow
NO. 963-1 CAMP CADY (ON THE MOJAVE ROAD)
Camp Cady was located on the Mojave Road which connected Los Angeles to Albuquerque. Non-Indian travel on this and the nearby Salt Lake Road was beset by Paiutes, Mohaves, and Chemehuevis defending their homeland. To protect both roads, Camp Cady was established by U.S. Dragoons in 1860. The main building was a stout mud redoubt. Improved camp structures were built 1/2 mile west in 1868. After peace was achieved, the military withdrew in 1871. This protection provided by Camp Cady enabled travelers, merchandise, and mail using both roads to boost California’s economy and growth.
Location: 24 mi N of Barstow take Harvard Rd offramp from I-15, turn rt, go .8 mi to Cherokee Rd, turn left and go 2.5 mi and turn right at the second fence line. At end of dirt rd.
NO. 977 THE ARROWHEAD
Located in the foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains directly above the City of San Bernardino, the arrowhead landmark can be seen for miles around. This important landmark has for centuries been a symbol of the San Bernardino Valley to the Native Indians and then to the pioneers and settlers that followed. It is believed to be a natural landmark. The face of the arrowhead consists of light quartz, supporting a growth of short white sage. This lighter vegetation shows in sharp contrast to the surrounding chaparral and greasewood. Indians who inhabited the San Bernardino Valley believed that the arrowhead pointed the way to the hot mineral springs below, with healing qualities, and thus considered it holy ground. Through the years, numerous forest fires have caused some erosion. But the arrowhead landmark continues to preserve its uniqueness and remains a symbol of the ‘pioneer spirit’ of the San Bernardino Valley. Location: N of the softball field in Wildwood Park, at the intersection of Waterman and 40th St, Hwy 18, San Bernardino
NO. 985 DESERT TRAINING CENTER, CALIFORNIA-ARIZONA MANEUVER AREA
(ESTABLISHED BY MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON, JR.) – CAMP IRON MOUNTAIN
Iron Mountain Divisional Camp was established at this site in the Spring of 1942. One of eleven such camps built in the California-Arizona Desert to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The first major unit trained here was the 3rd Armored Division followed by elements of the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th Armored Divisions. In all, one million men trained in the desert before the Training Center was officially closed in May of 1944. The most unique feature built at this camp is the huge relief map built into the desert floor. It can still be seen (1985). Location: 45 mi E of Indio on I-10, take Hwy 177 N to right on Hwy 62, the plaque is 5.4 mi
NO. 985 DESERT TRAINING CENTER, CALIFORNIA-ARIZONA MANEUVER AREA
(ESTABLISHED BY MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON, JR.) – CAMP CLIPPER
Camp Clipper was established at a site that reached from Essex Road to this location in the Spring of 1942. It was one of twelve such camps built in the southwestern deserts to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The Desert Training Center was a simulated theater of operations that included portions of California, Arizona, and Nevada. The other camps were Young, Coxcomb, Iron Mountain, Ibis, Granite, Pilot Knob, Laguna, Horn, Ryder, Bouse, and Rice. A total of 13 infantry divisions and 7 armored divisions plus numerous smaller units were trained in this harsh environment. The Training Center was in operation for almost two years and was closed early in 1944 when the last units were shipped overseas. During the brief period of operation over one million American soldiers were trained for combat. The 33rd and 93rd Infantry Divisions were trained here. Location: 37 mi W of Needles on I-40 and 115 mi E of Barstow at Fenner Rest Area eastbound
NO. 985 DESERT TRAINING CENTER, CALIFORNIA-ARIZONA MANEUVER AREA
ESTABLISHED BY MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON, JR.) – CAMP IBIS
Camp Ibis was established at this site in the Spring of 1942-one of eleven such camps built in the California-Arizona Desert to harden and train United States Troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The 440th AAA AW Battalion was activated per General Order No. 1 at Camp Haan, CA on July 1, 1942. It trained at Camp M.A.A.R. (Irwin), Camps Young, Iron Mountain, Ibis, and then Camps Pickett, VA, and Steward, GA. The battalion shipped out to England in December 1943 and landed in Normandy on D-3. The unit earned 5 Battle Stars and 2 Foreign Awards while serving with the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 9th U.S. Armies, the 1st French Army and the 2nd British Army, 7 different corps and 5 different divisions. The 440th AAA AW BN was deactivated in December 1944. Location: 8 mi E of Needles on Hwy 40 go N on Hwy 95 1.9 mi
NO. 994 A.K. SMILEY PUBLIC LIBRARY
Albert K. Smiley, a leader of the city’s library movement, donated this building and park to the citizens of Redlands in 1898. Through his generosity, Redlands was given one of California’s few privately funded libraries of that era. In 1906, he also contributed a wing, built to blend with the original design for this outstanding Mission Revival library.
Location: 125 West Vine St, Redlands; Listed on the National Register of Historic Places: NPS-94001487
NO. 1019 KIMBERLY CREST
Kimberly Crest, constructed in 1897, is an excellent example of Chateauesque architecture. Near the residence is a Chateauesque-style carriage house. Terraced Italian gardens designed in 1908 stretch almost a thousand yards from the entrance of the residence down to the entrance of the grounds. Location: 1325 Prospect Dr, Redlands Listed on the National Register of Historic Places: NPS-96000328
NO. 1028 MADONNA OF THE TRAIL
Dedicated in 1929, the Madonna of the Trail is one of twelve identical statues placed in twelve states by the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. The statues, differentiated by the inscriptions on their bases, commemorate the westward move of American civilization on a series of trails, which eventually linked the country from the Atlantic to the Pacific. They especially pay tribute to the importance of a national highway and the role of pioneer women. The statue was designed by German-born architectural sculptor August Leimbach and inspired by a statue of Sacagawea in Portland, Oregon. The Upland monument is said to represent four historic trails: the Mojave Trail, the de Anza Trail, the Emigrant Trail, and the Canyon Road. Location: 1100 Block of North Euclid Avenue, Upland, CA
FOX PERFORMING ARTS CENTER
not a historic designation
Fox’s Riverside Theater opened in 1929 as a cinema/vaudeville theater house. It was built with a Spanish Colonial Revival style and attracted well-known performers including Bing Crosby and Judy Garland. Additionally, it became popular as a location for motion picture previews, the theater was the site of the first public screening of “Gone with the Wind.” In 2007, the City began a major historical restoration of the Fox with the goal of making it the centerpiece of a downtown arts and culture scene. Location: 3801 Mission Inn Avenue, Riverside, CA
Mission Inn Hotel & Spa began as a quaint adobe boarding house in 1876, becoming a full-service hotel in the early 1900s. Opened by Frank Miller, it expanded in 1903 with over 200 guestrooms and the addition of the Mission Wing, built in Mission-Revival style while incorporating architectural features from more than 20 different California missions. Three more wings materialized as demand grew, including the Cloister, Spanish Wing and the Rotunda Wing, completed in 1931. Miller filled the hotel with valuable items from across the globe, including artwork, furniture and religious relics. Mission Inn still houses the oldest bell in Christendom, dating back to 1247. Location: 3649 Mission Inn Avenue, Riverside, CA